Urolithin A & B Powder
Cofttek have the capability to mass production and supply of Urolithin A powder; Urolithin B powder; 8-O-Methylurolithin A powder under the condition of cGMP. And with a monthly production capacity of 820KG.
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If you want to know more about Urolithin A & B Powder, then this is the guide you need; ensure you read all the 24 FAQs.
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What are Urolithins?Urolithins are derivatives or metabolites of ellagic acid components such as ellagitannins. These chemical components are metabolized from ellagic acid-derivatives by the gut microbiota.
Known Molecules of UrolithinUrolithins refer collectively to different molecules that belong to the urolithin family but have different chemical formulas, IUPAC names, chemical structures, and sources. Moreover, these molecules have widely different uses and benefits on the human body and hence are advertised differently in the supplement form. Urolithins, after extensive research, is known to breakdown into the following molecules in the body, although not much is known about every specific molecule: ●Urolithin A (3,8-Dihydroxy Urolithin)
●Urolithin A glucuronide
●Urolithin B (3-Hydroxy Urolithin)
●Urolithin B glucuronide
●Urolithin D (3,4,8,9-Tetrahydroxy Urolithin) Urolithin A and Urolithin B, more commonly known as UroA and UroB respectively, are the well-known metabolites of Urolithins in the body. These two are also the molecules that are currently being used in the supplements and meal replacement powders.
Urolithin A Powder Information PackageUrolithin A is not available naturally from food sources and belongs to the group of compounds known as benzo-coumarins or dibenzo-α-pyrones. It is actually metabolized from ellagitannins to Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether before being further broken down into Urolithin A. This end product is available in bulk at our manufacturing factory in the form of Urolithin A powder. MethylUrolithin A powder is also available to purchase in bulk if needed. Urolithin A is not available in the same levels, even with the same levels of consumption of its precursors, in different people because it is all dependent on the activity of gut microbiota. Urolithin A’s metabolism is believed to require Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens and Gordonibacter pamelaeae but some people with these still show minimal to no effect on the production of the molecule.
|Synonyms||3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-6-one; 3,8-DIHYDRO DIBENZO-(B,D)PYRAN-6-ONE; 3, 8-Dihydroxy-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one; Castoreum pigment I; Urolithin A; 6H-Dibenzo(B,D)pyran-6-one, 3,8-dihydroxy-; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one); urolithin-A(UA;3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo(b,d)pyran-6-one|
|Melting Point||>300 °C|
|Appearance||Light Yellow powder|
|Solubility||Soluble in DMSO (3 mg/mL).|
|Storage Condition||Days to Weeks: In a dark, dry room at 0 – 4 degrees C Months to Years: In a Freezer, away from liquids at -20 degrees C.|
|Application||Dietary uses as a meal replacement and supplements|
Urolithin B Powder Information PackageUrolithin B is a phenolic compound that has only begun to be mass-produced since January of 2021. It can be obtained by eating several foods that are natural sources of ellagitannins that can be metabolized into Urolithin B. It has been found to be a potent anti-aging compound that you can buy in bulk in the form of Urolithin B powder.
|Synonyms||AURORA 226; Urolithin B; AKOS BBS-00008028; 3-hydroxy urolithin; 3-hydroxy-6-benzo[c]chromenone;3-hydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one; 3-Hydroxy-benzo[c]chromen-6-one; 3-HYDROXY-6H-DIBENZO[B,D]PYRAN-6-ONE; 6H-Dibenzo(b,d)pyran-6-one, 3-hydroxy-;3-Hydroxy-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one AldrichCPR|
|Molecular Weight||212.2 g/mol|
|Melting Point||>247 °C|
|Appearance||Light brown powder|
|Solubility||Soluble at 5mg/mL when warmed, clear liquid|
|Application||Anti-oxidant and Pro-oxidant supplement with estrogenic activity.|
●Urolithin C (3,8,9-Trihydroxy urolithin)
●Urolithin E (2,3,8,10-Tetrahydroxy urolithin)
Not much is known about these intermediates as of now, however, further research has the potential to discover the benefits and uses of these Urolithin molecules.
How do Urolithins Work?Urolithins, like other compounds used in supplements, affect different organs and systems in the body, to produce their beneficial effects. The mechanism of action of Urolithins, both A and B, can be divided into six main branches, and each branch has the potential to produce multiple benefits. ●Antioxidant Properties
The main benefit of having antioxidant properties is reduced oxidative stress in the body. Oxidative stress refers to stress on the cells and tissues in the body as a result of chemical reactions that produce unstable compounds, also known as free radicals. These free radicals have further potential to participate in volatile chemical reactions in the body, the byproducts of which damage the cells and tissues. Urolithins suppress this oxidative stress, which results in the inhibition of cell injury and increases the chances of cell survival. These effects are made possible through the reduction of the production of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (iROS), which are a type of free radicals. Moreover, antioxidant properties of Urolithin A and Urolithin B also arise through reduced NADPH oxidase subunit expression, which is crucial for the chemical reactions resulting in oxidative stress.
The anti-inflammatory properties of Urolithins are one of the main reasons for its rising fame in the supplement world. The mechanism through which these compounds, especially Urolithin A, Urolithin B, and their glucuronides form, are widely different and produce equally different results. The anti-inflammatory effect of Urolithin A and Urolithin B has the same mechanism as Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs or NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen and Aspirin. Urolithins are known to have an inhibitory effect on the production of PGE2 and the expression of COX-2. As NSAIDs inhibit the expression of both COX 1 and COX 2, it can be concluded that Urolithins have a more selective anti-inflammatory effect. The anti-inflammatory properties of Urolithins have been proven to not only fight inflammation in the body but are also able to reverse the damage done to the organs as a result of long-term inflammation which has resulted in organ failure. In a recent study performed on animal models, it was found that urolithin consumption had the ability to mitigate drug-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal cell death and inflammation.
Urolithins are believed to be anti-carcinogenic due to their ability to have effects such as cell cycle arrest, aromatase inhibition, induction of apoptosis, tumor suppression, promotion of autophagy, and senescence, transcriptional regulation of oncogenes, and growth factor receptors. These effects, if absent, can cause the aberrant growth of cancer cells. Preventive features of Urolithins have been proven, especially for prostate cancer and colon cancer, with many researchers rallying for the use of Urolithins as potential preventive medication for prostate cancer. A study performed in 2018 studied the effects of Urolithin on the mTOR pathway with the aim of finding a treatment option for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is associated with high mortality rates, but recent research shows that Urolithin may be able to not only increase the survival rate but also inhibit grafting of tumor cells to other parts of the body, resulting in metastasis. Urolithin A was studied specifically and the results were compared to the results produced by the standard treatment regimen. It was concluded that Urolithin A produced better results when used to manage pancreatic cancer, in both conditions; when used alone or with the standard treatment plan. With further research, Urothilins benefits may conclusively contain treatment of pancreatic cancer as well. ●Antibacterial Properties
Urolithins are known for their antibacterial properties and they have this effect by inhibiting the communication channels of the microorganisms, not allowing them to move about or infect the cells. They are also believed to have antifungal properties, although the exact mechanism is not yet clear. There are two pathogens that Urolithins have an especially strong inhibitory effect on, resulting in protection for the human body. These pathogens are malarial microbes and Yersinia enterocolitica, with both of them causing severe infections in humans. The mechanism through which Urolithins have antibacterial properties regardless of the organism is the same. ●Anti Estrogenic and Estrogenic Properties
Estrogen is an important hormone in the female body, and the decline in its levels is associated with symptoms such as flushing, hot flashes, and decreased bone mass. Given the importance of the hormone, it makes sense that a substitute is being actively searched. However, exogenous hormones have certain side effects that make their use undesirable.
Protein glycation is a process in which a sugar molecule is bound to a protein. This process is seen during aging or as a part of certain disorders. Urolithins inhibit the addition of sugar, hence inducing anti-glycation effects. Moreover, they inhibit advanced glycation endproducts formation, the accumulation of which is an important pathophysiological step in the development of diabetes.
Benefits of UrolithinsUrolithins have different mechanisms of action to produce different protective benefits in the human body. Urolithin A powder and Urolithin B powder help manufacture the supplements which are famous because of the benefits of the main ingredients. All the benefits of these chemical compounds are backed by scientific evidence, and even further research is being performed to support the addition of Urolithins in the guidelines for the treatment of several disorders. The benefits of these compounds, based on the mechanisms mentioned above, include: ●Antioxidant Properties
Urolithins are extracted from several ellagitannins-rich foods that themselves are known to be rich in antioxidants. The most common food source for ellagitannins and ellagic acid is pomegranates, and they are also a great source of antioxidants. However, it is important to distinguish if the antioxidant properties of the food source and urolithins are similar or if one has a higher potential than the other. Initial studies of Urolithin A and Urolithin B showed that the antioxidant effects of these were 42 times less than that of the fruit itself, hence implying that these chemical compounds would not make for good ingredients for supplements. However, recent studies with a different method of analysis show that Urolithin A and B are both quite efficient and have potent antioxidant properties that will combat the effects of oxidative stress. When the same method of analysis was used to study all urolithins to see which is the most potent, Urolithin A stood out. The results were then reproduced in a similar study with Urolithin A taking the lead in potency, again.
The anti-inflammatory properties of Urolithins produce several benefits, all of which have been proven scientifically. 1.Antimalarial effect
A homemade remedy for malaria treatment that is widely used in certain rural areas involves the use of Pomegranate. Researchers attempted to understand the positive effect of this remedy on the treatment of malaria by associating the results with the effects of Urolithins metabolized in the gut from pomegranate. A study was performed to study the effect of Urolithins in treating malaria by exposing infected monocytic cells to Urolithins. This study found that the chemical compounds inhibit the release of MMP-9, which is an important metalloproteinase in the development and pathogenesis of malaria. Inhibition of the compound inhibits malaria from being pathogenic in the body, hence why it is believed to have an antimalarial effect. The results of the study also showed that Urolithins inhibited mRNA expression of malarial pathogens, resulting in further inhibition of the microorganisms’ ability to cause infection. The results of this study prove that the beneficial effects of homemade remedies including pomegranate is due to the effects of urolithin. 2.Effect on Endothelial Cells
Atherosclerosis is a common condition that leads to cardiac insults and myocardial infarctions. The two common factors behind atherosclerosis development are endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Recent studies have tried to prove that the anti-inflammatory properties of Urolithin may be able to prevent endothelial dysfunction, and hence, manage atherosclerosis formation and development. Urolithin A was found by researchers to have the highest anti-inflammatory action amongst all urolithins. A recent study focused on human endothelial cells that were incubated with oxidized LDL, a prerequisite for atherosclerosis formation, and different concentrations of Urolithin A. The researchers found that Urolithin A inhibited nitric oxide synthase and reduced the expression of I-CAM, which resulted in reduced inflammation and decreased ability of cells, especially monocytes to adhere to the endothelial cells, respectively. Reduced monocytic adherence alleviates endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, Urolithin A was found to reduce the expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and endothelin 1; all pro-inflammatory cytokines. 3.Effect on Fibroblasts in the Colon
Colon is exposed to exogenous pathogens and dietary components that make it vulnerable to inflammation, which in the long run can lead to several health issues. As Urolithin A and Urolithin B are produced by the intestinal flora, it is important to know their effects in the first place in the body they are formed. To study the effects of Urolithins on colon cells and fibroblasts, researchers performed an experiment where fibroblasts were exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and then to Urolithins. As mentioned above, it was found that Urolithins inhibits monocyte adhesion and fibroblast migration to inhibit inflammation in the colon. Moreover, it was found that Urolithins inhibited the activation of the NF-κB factor, which is important for the regulation of inflammation. In fact, researchers believe this to be the main factor behind the anti-inflammatory properties of urolithins. ●Anti-Carcinogenic Properties
Urolithins are associated with anti-cancer properties, and the mechanism of these properties is mentioned above. However, the benefits of these properties are mentioned below: 1.Protection from Prostate Cancer
Detection of Urolithins in the body is usually done either using the blood or urine; however, they can be detected in both the colon of males and females and the prostate gland of males. As a result of this finding, researchers tried to assess if the benefits of the chemical compounds are visible in the prostate gland like they are in the colon. Hence, a study was designed, the results of which proved that Urolithins do have a protective effect on the prostate gland. It was found that Urolithin A and Urolithin B, along with Urolithin C and Urolithin D inhibited the CYP1B1 enzyme in the prostate gland. This enzyme is the target of chemotherapy and it was strongly inhibited by Urolithin A, compared to other urolithins. They also inhibited CYP1A1, however, a higher concentration of urolithins was required to produce that effect. Another study was performed to study the prostate protective effects of Urolithins. It was found that Urolithin A had an anti-cancer effect on prostate cancer through both, p53 dependant and p53 independent manner. 2.Topoisomerase 2 and CK 2 inhibition
Urolithins have anti-cancer properties through the inhibition of several molecular pathways which either directly or indirectly result in the inhibition of cancer growth. The CK2 enzyme is an important enzyme that participates in such molecular pathways, with its main function being to promote inflammation and cancer. Urolithins inhibit different pathways to reach the ubiquitous enzyme, CK2 to eventually inhibit its effect, such as its cancer-promoting properties. Urolithin A has been shown to be a potent CK2 inhibitor, in silico. Similarly, Topoisomerase 2 inhibition is believed to have anti-cancer effects. In fact, this mechanism is used by certain chemotherapy agents such as Doxorubicin. In a recent study, it was found that Urolithin A is more potent than Doxorubicin in inhibiting Topoisomerase 2, hence, calling for its addition to the current guidelines for the treatment of certain cancers. ●Antibacterial Properties
The antibacterial properties of Urolithins depend on Quorum Sensing Inhibition which takes away the ability of the microorganism to communicate, move, and form virulence factors. It is an important mechanism for the survival of bacteria, and its inhibition by Urolithins is deadly for the microorganism. The main antibacterial property of Urolithin is its ability to protect the gut from the overgrowth of Yersinia enterocolitica. In fact, Urolithins are associated with modulation of the gut flora, the same flora which is responsible for their production in the first place. This is especially important as only specific organisms in the flora can increase the production of Urolithins. ●Anti Estrogenic and Estrogenic Properties
Urolithins bind to the Estrogen receptors and produce both, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties. This makes it a great candidate for Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators or SERMs, the main mechanism of which is to have a positive effect in one area of the body and an inhibitory effect on the other area of the body. In one of the studies performed on the effects of urolithins on estrogen receptors, it was found that they, especially urolithin A, inhibit the gene expression of ER-positive endometrial cancer cells, resulting in suppression of endometrial cancer. Endometrial hypertrophy is a common side effect of exogenous estrogen in post neoplasia like women taking hormone replacement therapy, and the use of urolithins is believed to have a protective effect on the endometrium. However, further research needs to be performed before Urolithins can become the next SERM medication. ●Protein Glycation Inhibition
The presence of advanced glycation end products is a hallmark of hyperglycemia that predisposes people to diabetes-associated cardiovascular injury or even Alzheimer’s disease. Urolithin A and Urolithin B have been shown to have an anti-glycation effect that prevents cardiac insults and reduces the risk of neurodegeneration significantly.
The benefits of Urolithin A specifically are mentioned below:●Increase life span
Aging, stress, and certain disorders can damage the mitochondria, which is crucial for normal energy production and use in the body. Moreover, mitochondria are often referred to as the ‘powerhouse of the cell’, which implies its importance for the normal functioning of the cell. Hence, any damage to this powerhouse would negatively affect the cell and reduce its lifespan significantly.
As mentioned above, urolithins have anti-inflammatory properties and it is these properties that promote neuronal cell formation in the brain, which has a positive effect on cognition and memory retention. Moreover, Urolithin A protects against neurodegeneration seen with Alzheimer’s disease, hence, the neuroprotective effects. ●Prevent Prostate Cancer
Urolithin A has anti-cancer properties but they are especially visible in the case of prostate cancer, with several studies promoting the use of pomegranate and other sources of Urolithins for the treatment of Prostate cancer. ●Treat Obesity
Urolithin A has anti-obesity effects as it not only inhibits the accumulation of fat cells in the body but also inhibits the markers responsible for adipogenesis. In a study performed on animal models, it was found that Urolithin A has an elevating effect on T3 thyroid hormone, which results in increased energy expenditure in the mice. This induces thermogenesis and causes brown fat to melt, while white fat is being induced into browning.
The benefits of Urolithin B are as below:●Prevent muscle loss
Urolithin B shares some of the benefits of Urolithin A but has one specific benefit, unique only to itself. Urolithin B is known to prevent muscle loss in both physiological and pathological states. Moreover, it promotes skeletal muscle growth by increasing protein synthesis in the muscles.
Dosage of UrolithinsUrolithins are derived from natural compounds and their supplements are considered to be well-tolerated with no toxicities reporter. However, it is important to keep in mind that these compounds are still under research and have dosage limits that should be strictly followed. ●Urolithin A
After extensive research on the benefits of Urolithin A, there were several research studies performed to assess the right dosage of this chemical compound. The Absorption, Digestion, Metabolism, and Elimination study was performed to analyze the features of the compound. The study was divided into two, depending on the number of days, and it was found that the 28-day study with 0, 0.175, 1.75, and 5.0% of Urolithin A mixed in diet and 90-day study with 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0% Urolithin A mixed in the diet showed no alterations in clinical parameters, blood chemistry, or hematology, and did not imply any specific toxic mechanisms. Both studies had the highest dose tested at 5% UA by weight in the diet which led to the following dosages; 3451 mg/kg BW/day in males and 3826 mg/kg BW/day in females in the 90-day oral study. ●Urolithin B
Similar to Urolithin A, Urolithin B was studied extensively to assess the perfect dosage. Although it is important to note that the studies focused on the safe dosage to achieve optimal muscle increase. This dose was found to be 15uM, for both genders, regardless of the weight. ●Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether
This compound is used as well, mainly because it is an intermediate during Urolithin A production. However, not enough research has been performed for an appropriate dosage to be determined for this specific Urolithin.
Food Sources of UrolithinsUrolithins are not found naturally in any food source, however, they are found as ellagitannins. These tannins break down into ellagic acid, which further metabolizes into Urolithin A 8-Methyl ether, then into Urolithin A, and finally, Urolithin B. The foods that are rich in Urolithins are:
|Dietary source||Ellagic Acid|
|Fruits (mg/100g fresh weight)|
|Oak-aged red wine||33|
Why Should You Buy From Our Manufacturer Factory?Urolithin Powder A and Urolithin Powder B are available in bulk, at our manufacturing factory that integrates production, research, development, and sales of such supplements. Our products are manufactured using extreme precision to follow all safety guidelines, which ensures the high quality and safety of the final product. All products are researched prior to manufacturing and are thoroughly tested during and after production to meet your quality standards. After production, products are tested at our labs one more time to check for the quality, potency, and safety of the Urolithin powders and other products. Once ready for distribution, the products are packed and stored in appropriate facilities, at the right temperature while following all guidelines to guarantee that high-quality product reaches you. Urolithin powders are not exposed to sunlight during transport, packaging, or storage as that could damage the end product.
What is Urolithin A?Urolithin A (UA) is produced endogenously by human gut bacteria exposed to dietary polyphenolic compounds that include ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins (ET), such as punicalagin. These polyphenolic precursors are found widely in fruits (pomegranate and certain berries) and nuts (walnuts and pecans).
How does Urolithin a work?Urolithin A (UA) Is a Gut Microbiome-Derived Compound with Health Benefits for Aging and Diseases. Several dietary products contain the natural polyphenols ellagitannins (ETs) and ellagic acid (EA). ... Once absorbed, UA positively impacts mitochondrial and cellular health in age-related conditions and diseases.
What fruits contain Urolithin A?Sources of ellagitannins are: pomegranates, nuts, some berries (raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, cloudberries), tea, muscadine grapes, many tropical fruits, and oak-aged wines (table below).
What is Urolithin a used for?The gut microbiota metabolizes ellagic acid resulting in the formation of bioactive urolithins A, B, C, and D. Urolithin A (UA) is the most active and effective gut metabolite and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent.
What is Urolithin a good for?Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents.
What foods contain Urolithin A?Dietary sources of urolithin A
So far, research has found that pomegranate, strawberries, blackberries, camu-camu, walnuts, chestnuts, pistachios, pecans, brewed tea, and oaken barrel-aged wines and spirits contain ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins.
What are the benefits of Urolithin A?Urolithin A (UA) is a natural dietary, microflora-derived metabolite shown to stimulate mitophagy and improve muscle health in old animals and in preclinical models of aging.
How do we get Urolithin A from our diets?Urolithin A (UA) is produced endogenously by human gut bacteria exposed to dietary polyphenolic compounds that include ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannins (ET), such as punicalagin. These polyphenolic precursors are found widely in fruits (pomegranate and certain berries) and nuts (walnuts and pecans).
What is Mitopure?Mitopure is a proprietary and highly pure form of Urolithin A. It helps our bodies counter age-associated cellular decline by revitalizing the power generators inside of our cells; i.e. our mitochondria. ... Urolithin A improves mitochondrial and muscle function, providing more energy to cells.
Is Mitopure safe for human consumption?In addition, in human clinical studies Mitopure was determined to be safe. (Singh et al, 2017). Mitopure has also been favorably reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) following a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) filing.
When should I take Mitopure?We recommend taking two Mitopure softgels a day for optimal results. While you can take Mitopure any time of day, we recommend taking it with breakfast, as that is the protocol we used in our clinical trials.
What is Urolithin a supplement?Urolithin A (UA) Is a Gut Microbiome-Derived Compound with Health Benefits for Aging and Diseases. Several dietary products contain the natural polyphenols ellagitannins (ETs) and ellagic acid (EA). Upon ingestion of such foods, ETs and EA are metabolized into UA by the microflora in the large intestine.
Urolithin A supplement benefitsUrolithin A improves mitochondrial and muscle function, providing more energy to cells. It is a naturally-occurring anti-aging compound that can benefit anyone looking to proactively maintain muscle health.
What is Urolithin B?Urolithin B is an urolithin, a type of phenolic compounds produced in the human gut after absorption of ellagitannins-containing food such as pomegranate, strawberries, red raspberries, walnuts or oak-aged red wine. Urolithin B is found in the urine in the form of urolithin B glucuronide.
Urolithin A supplement benefitsUrobolin is a supplement that comes from punica granatum (Pomegranate) that is standardized to Urolithin B. Urobolin as a supplement can mitigate muscle damage experienced during intense exercise and protect muscle against stresses induced by a high-fat diet.
- Totiger TM, Srinivasan S, Jala VR, et al. Urolithin A, a Novel Natural Compound to Target PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2019;18(2):301-311. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-0464.
- Guada M, Ganugula R, Vadhanam M, Ravi Kumar MNV. Urolithin A Mitigates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Inhibiting Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;363(1):58-65. doi:10.1124/jpet.117.242420.
- Juan Carlos Espín, Mar Larrosa, María Teresa García-Conesa, Francisco Tomás-Barberán, "Biological Significance of Urolithins, the Gut Microbial Ellagic Acid-Derived Metabolites: The Evidence So Far", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 270418, 15 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/270418.
- Lee G, Park JS, Lee EJ, Ahn JH, Kim HS. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms of urolithin B in activated microglia. Phytomedicine. 2019;55:50-57. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2018.06.032.
- Han QA, Yan C, Wang L, Li G, Xu Y, Xia X. Urolithin A attenuates ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction partly by modulating microRNA-27 and ERK/PPAR-γ pathway. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60(9):1933-1943. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500827.