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What is Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid (328-50-7)?Alpha-ketoglutaric acid is a biological compound found naturally in the human body. Also available as a dietary supplement, alpha-ketoglutaric acid plays a key role in the Krebs cycle (a series of chemical reactions used to release stored energy). Alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are purported to offer a variety of health benefits, including enhanced athletic performance and improved metabolism.
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid (328-50-7) benefitsWith that being said, a few early studies have hinted at the potential benefits of alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplementation. Here is what some of the current research says:
①Chronic Kidney DiseaseAlpha-ketoglutaric acid has been used since the late-1990s to help break down and absorb protein in people on hemodialysis who require a low-protein diet. Recent evidence suggests that it may also delay the need for dialysis in people with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
According to a 2017 study in the journal PLoS One, researchers identified and followed 1,483 people with advanced CKD who used an alpha-ketoglutaric acid supplement called Ketosteril. The average duration of the follow-up was 1.57 years.
Compared to a matched set of individuals who didn't take the supplement, those who did were less likely to require long-term dialysis. The benefits extended only to those who took more than 5.5 tablets per day, indicating the effects were dose-dependent.
Despite the positive findings, it is unclear what role alpha-ketoglutaric acid played in comparison to the supplement's other active ingredients. Further research is needed.
②Gastrointestinal HealthAlpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are believed to be anticatabolic, meaning that it slows or prevents or catabolism (the breakdown of tissues). By definition, a catabolic process is opposite to an anabolic process (in which tissues are built).
A 2012 study in the Italian Journal of Animal Science reported that alpha-ketoglutaric acid prevented the breakdown of the intestines in lab rats fed a protein-free diet for 14 days. Rather than experiencing damage to the finger-like villi of the intestines—the expected outcome—the rats fed alpha-ketoglutaric acid had no visible damage compared to rats that weren't.
Moreover, the rats provided the supplements were able to maintain normal growth despite the total lack of protein. Higher doses conferred to even better results.
The findings appear to support alpha-ketoglutaric acid's anticatabolic effects. In addition to its application in chronic kidney disease, alpha-ketoglutaric acid may also aid people with intestinal toxemia and malabsorption disorders like celiac disease. Further research is needed.
③Athletic PerformanceBy contrast, the anticatabolic effects of alpha-ketoglutaric acid appear to fall short when used for the purpose of muscle growth and athletic performance.
According to a 2012 study in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, alpha-ketoglutaric acid had no tangible effect on either muscle strength or exercise endurance in 16 men tasked with a resistance training workout.
For this study, half of the men were given 3,000-milligrams (mg) of alpha-ketoglutaric acid, while the other half were given a placebo 45 minutes before doing bench press and leg press exercises. The following week, the supplements were flipped, with each half getting the alternate drug.
Athletic performance was based on the total load volume (TLV) of the exercises performed in tandem with pre- and post-exercise heart rates. What these findings demonstrate is the absence of catabolic response is not the same thing as an anabolic response, especially among athletes.
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid (328-50-7) uses?In heart surgery, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is sometimes delivered intravenously (into a vein) to reduce damage to the heart muscle due to the reduced blood flow. Doing so may also improve blood flow to the kidney following the surgery.
Its use as a supplement is far less certain. Alternative practitioners believe that alpha-ketoglutaric acid can treat or prevent a wide variety of health conditions, including:
- Chronic kidney disease
- Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
- Intestinal toxemia
- Oral thrush
- Yeast infections
As is often the case with supplements that claim to treat multiple unrelated conditions, the evidence supporting these claims is weak. Some, like the supplement's "anti-aging" properties (based largely on a 2014 study involving nematode worms), border on the improbable.
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid (328-50-7) dosageAlpha-ketoglutaric acid supplements are available in tablet, capsule, and powder formulations and can be readily found online or in stores specializing in dietary supplements.
There are no universal guidelines for the appropriate use of alpha-ketoglutaric acids. Supplements are typically sold in dosages ranging from 300 milligrams (mg) to 1,000 mg taken once daily with or without food. Doses of up to 3,000 mg have been used in studies with no adverse effects.
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid (328-50-7) possible side effectsAlpha-ketoglutaric acid is considered safe and well-tolerated. Studies investigating the effects of alpha-ketoglutaric acid reported few adverse symptoms after three years of use.
As a compound made from non-essential amino acids, alpha-ketoglutaric acid is not a substance on which you can readily overdose. Any excess in the body will either be excreted in urine or broken down into the basic amino acid building blocks for other purposes.
With that said, the safety of alpha-ketoglutaric acid in pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children has not been established. This includes children with rare metabolism disorders such as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (in which alpha-ketoglutaric acid levels are abnormally elevated).
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- Abrahams JP, Leslie AG, Lutter R, Walker JE. Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria. Nature. 1994;370:621–628. doi: 10.1038/370621a0.
- Alpers DH. Glutamine: do the data support the cause for glutamine supplementation in humans? Gastroenterology. 2006;130:S106–S116. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.049.
- Ashkanazi J, Carpertier Y, Michelsen C. Muscle and plasma amino acids following injury. Ann Surg. 1980;192:78–85. doi: 10.1097/00000658-198007000-00014.