FREE RADICAL THEORY

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Normal body metabolism
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Air pollution
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Ultraviolet radiation
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Heavy metal pollution
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Pesticide pollution
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Pesticide pollution

 

 

FREE RADICALS & DISEASES

 

Normally, free radicals are necessary for bodies, but excessive free radicals can cause the imbalance of physiological function, then lead to oxidative stress evolving in various diseases ( literatures indicate that free radicals are the source of various diseases).

 

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ANTIOXIDANT

 

Our bodies cannot operate without oxygen, and once a large number of free radicals increased, the body under oxidative stress will cause the repair system to fail in removing excessive free radicals. In special cases, the body need replenish antioxidants in vitro to remove excessive free radicals.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIOXIDANTS

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L-ERGOTHIONEINE –A NEW TYPE OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT

 

EGT is a natural chiral amino-acid antioxidant biosynthesized in certain bacteria and fungi. It is an important bioactive compound which has been used as a radical scavenger, an ultraviolet ray filter, a regulator of oxidation-reduction reactions and cellular bioenergetics, and a physiological cytoprotector, etc.
L-Ergothioneine( EGT, ERGO, CAS: 497-30-3), also known as (S)-α-Carboxy-2,3-dihydro-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-thioxo-1H-imidazole-4-ethanaminium inner salt, was initially extracted from ergot by Tanret C in 1909, then it was also discovered in animal blood. Pure EGT is white crystal, soluble in water, (dissolved 0.9mol/L at room temperature). Autoxidation cannot occur at physiological pH value or in strong alkaline solution. EGT can exist in two isomer forms — a thiol form and a thione form, as shown below:

 

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ANTIOXIDATION

With advantages of multi-functions, EGT stands out among many other antioxidants.

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ADVANTAGES

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With advantages of multi-functions, EGT stands out among many other antioxidants.Advantages (compared with glutathione, cysteine etc.):
——EGT is easier to accumulate in cells and the concentration is more stable than other antioxidants.
——EGT is more effective on reducing cell death caused by pyrogallol.
——EGT mainly scavenges ROS to prevent oxidation, while glutathione and others scavenge free radicals, that is, other antioxidants scavenge oxidation products.

COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDATION

Results: EGT was the most active scavenger of free radicals as compared to classic antioxidants as GSH, uric acid and trolox. In particular, the highest antioxidant capacity exhibited by EGT vs. peroxyl radicals resulted 25% higher than the value obtained with the reference antioxidant trolox. The scavenging capacity of EGT towards hydroxyl radicals was 60% higher, as compared to uric acid,which represent the reference antioxidant vs. hydroxyl radicals. Finally, EGT showed the highest antioxidant activity also towards peroxynitrite, with a scavenging capacity 10% higher than that of uric acid.

 

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OTHER FUNCTIONS

 

EGT also has effects on regulating intracellular energy,
enhancing immunity,
improving the survival rate of sperm,
protecting the liver from injury,
inhibiting inflammation,
neurodegeneration,
developmental defects and cataract.

 

 

NECESSITY OF DEVELOPMENT

① EGT HAS BEEN WIDELY FOUND IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

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② INSTRUCTION

5-10mg per unit for an adult and 2-3 units continuous intake is essential in your daily diet.

Source: Li Yiqun, Zhou Nianbo. Biology Functions and Applications of EGT [J]. Food Engineering,2010,9(3):26-28.

Intakes are listed as follows:

Children (3-11 years) ≤l 0 mg/day
Youth (11-21 years) ≤30 mg/day
Adults(21-80 years) ≤30 mg/day

Note:1. Dosages for children and adults(3 -80 years old)

           2.Use for pregnant or lactating women is not recommended.

Data source: Tetrahedron when applying for US NDI

Data suggest: 10.5mg/g for OXIS’s ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake).

 

③ SYNTHESIS

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EXTRACTION & APPLICATION

(1)EXTRACTION

At present, there are three methods for EGT production: chemical synthesis, natural bio-extraction (mainly from mushrooms, animal tissues and blood extraction), and biosynthesis method.

Comparison of EGT Extraction Methods

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(2)APPLICATION

EGT has broad applications in cosmetics, functional foods, pharmaceuticals, therapeutics, biomedicine, and so on.

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(3)OTHER AVAILABLE APPLICATIONS

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